The Lake Simcoe Muskie Restoration Project (LSMRP) commenced in 2004. Before it started, there were several years of feasibility studies, which determined that restocking of Lake Simcoe was viable. Muskies Canada Executive asked the Toronto Chapter to lead the project for the club. Dave Boxall headed the LSMRP Team in the early years, with Steve Bedarf, Jim Kelly and Cupcake. In 2002 and 2003, the team had limited knowledge of how to raise wild Muskie, obtained eggs from Lake Couchiching, and experimented with outdoor ponds. These efforts were largely unsuccessful, due primarily to cannibalism, with no fingerlings in the first year and 8 in the second year.
The LSMRP then started in 2004. Our two main operational partners were the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry (MNRF) and Sir Sandford Fleming`s Lindsay hatchery (Fleming). The key people we worked with were Emily Funnell (Jason Borwick in the early years), Wil Wegman and Brent Shirley of the MNRF`s Aurora and Midhurst districts and Mark Newell of Fleming. The Muskies Canada team the past decade has been lead by Ian Young, Jim Kelly, Dave Boxall and Andy Pappas, with many volunteers assisting every year with both the collection of eggs in the spring in Gloucester Pool and the putting of fall fingerlings into the Lake in late October and early November. A lot of expertise regarding the raising of wild Muskies has been developed by all of these involved parties.
The original term of the Project was 10 years, with an annual target of 500 fall fingerlings and yearlings. This was later changed to 14 or 15 years, with an annual target in excess of 1,000 fingerlings and yearlings after Dr. John Casselman said he was sure we would be successful if we stocked muskies through 3 life cycles. Dr. Casselman is the world`s top living Muskie scientist. We have evidence from a similar 8 year restocking program of over 10,000 fingerlings and yearlings in the Spanish River that finished a decade ago (see article in the last issue of the RJ) which has been successful. There has been DNA proof of our stocked fingerlings surviving and many inadvertent catches and sightings of Muskie in Lake Simcoe. By the end of 2018, the LSMRP had lasted 14 years and we had stocked over 20,000 fingerlings and yearlings into Lake Simcoe.
The total cost of the LSMRP through 2018 has been over $1.5 million. Muskie Canada`s contribution has been over $250,000 ln cash plus many hours by volunteers each year in management meetings, assisting with the spring egg collections and putting of fingerlings and yearlings into the Lake in the fall. Muskie Canada`s fundraising efforts have been lead by Jim, Dave and Ian. Our main financial supporters have been the Becker Foundation (see separate article), the Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (Zones E, G, H and J), Orillia Fish and Game, and Muskies Canada (National and the Kawartha Lakes, Hamilton, Barrie and Toronto Chapters). Thanks to a lot of hard work by Peter Levick to obtain approval from Georgina Township for Muskies to run a provincial lottery in 2016 and a lot of additional work by Tom McCutcheon to run the lottery since then, significant funds have been raised to help fund the LSMRP each year. Over $5,000 has also been donated by individuals to our “Adopt-a-Muskie” program, which we are running jointly with Fleming. These funds are currently in the Muskies Canada Foundation, earmarked for the LSMRP.
The LSMRP brings a lot of positive publicity each year to Muskies Canada and Muskie conservation. There have been many magazine and newspaper articles and film clips and interviews on television. The LSMRP was the first winner of the best fisheries conservation project in Canada when that annual award was started in 2010. There have also been presentations on the LSMRP at the two world Muskellunge symposiums in Ottawa and Minnetonka, Minnesota in 2014 and 2016. A scientific paper on the LSMRP, was published by the American Fisheries Society in 2017 in its book titled “Muskellunge Management”. A major reason why we have such a strong relationship with the Spring Fishing and Boat Show, and Andy and Vita Pallotta, has been the LSMRP. We developed Muskie Sunday, one of our two major annual fundraising efforts with the Odyssey, out of Andy`s desire to help us raise funds for the LSMRP and Muskie conservation.
There have been many benefits for Muskies Canada in addition to the satisfaction of helping to restore muskellunge to their historical waters in Lake Simcoe. Muskies Canada, the MNRF and Fleming are now likely the most knowledgeable raisers of wild muskellunge in the world We have developed tremendous partnerships and personal friendships with the MNRF, Fleming, OFAH, the Becker Foundation and Muskies Inc., Orillia Fish and Game, and many other partners. This project has been a significant help in raising Muskie Canada`s profile in the fishing and conservation worlds.
At the end of 2018 we had exceeded our expectations regarding the number of Muskie fingerlings and yearlings stocked into the Lake. The MNRF and Muskies Canada have jointly decided that 2019 is a good time to stop egg collections, rearing and stocking of muskies for the LSMRP. Thus, as Emily Funnell, Resources Management Supervisor of the MNRF`s Aurora District announced in a press release in December 2018, “We will not be undertaking egg collections, rearing and stocking in 2019. We will continue to engage with our partners and fisheries experts as we move into long term effectiveness monitoring.”
A special thank you to all of our partners and volunteers for their contributions to date. We look forward to continuing to work together in the future on the long-term monitoring program.
2018 marked the 14th year of the Lake Simcoe Muskie Restoration Program (LSMRP). The epitome of a true partnership, the LSMRP involves Muskies Canada, Orillia Fish and Game, Fleming College, the Becker Foundation, OFAH, Toronto Spring Fishing and Boat Show and MNRF’s Aurora and Midhurst Districts. This program aims to restore a self-sustaining Muskie population that is not reliant on stocking back into Lake Simcoe. Once plentiful in the lake, it is believed that by the 1930’s the species was almost extirpated due to a variety of reasons, including a prior commercial fishery, decreased spawning habitat quality increasing Pike numbers and a lack of catch and release ethic by anglers.
A Feasibility study conducted prior to the program’s start in 2005, determined that restoring Muskie was feasible, but likely wouldn’t be successful if the original or Kawartha strain Muskie was used to help restock the lake. Kawartha’s Muskie have proven to have little tolerance for, nor an ability to co-exist with Northern Pike whereas their cousins to the north in Georgian Bay, have long been able to co-exist. Therefore, all partners agreed that Georgian Bay strain Muskie would be used.
Since 2005, crews trap netted Muskie every spring in either Georgian Bay or nearby Gloucester Pool (considered same strain) hoping to collect as many as three families each year. But like all good things … it wasn’t easy! “If Muskie are known as the fish of 10,000 casts amongst us anglers, then they are quietly recognized as the fish of a thousand net sets for fisheries techs and biologists,” revealed long time Muskies Canada member, trap netting volunteer and LSMRP organizer Jim Kelly. “Some years we would capture several ripe male and female muskies and collect our full three families in less than two weeks while other years MNRF staff would have their nets out and check for 4 or 5 weeks and barely scrape out enough ripe Muskie for one family,” he added. Whatever the case however one thing was certain … that once the fertilized eggs were transferred over to Mark Newell – “The Muskie Whisperer” and Hatchery Manager at Sir Sandford Fleming College in Lindsay, he would work his magic and get the absolute most out of every single egg, fry and fingerling he was tasked with raising!
Over the years the actual number of Muskie stocked into Lake Simcoe has varied tremendously … from less than a hundred at the start to as many as 4,000 in 2015.
After more than 10 years of trapnetting Muskie in Gloucester Pool, crews from Midhurst and Aurora realized that fewer and fewer Muskie were being caught there so they decided instead in 2018 to join forces with their MNRF Upper Great Lakes Management Unit (UGLMU) cohorts to help trap net Muskie in Severn Sound of Georgian Bay. Here they trap netted for over three weeks in early May and although several Muskie were captured … not all were ripe and willing to yield the eggs and milt required. One very large family however was collected from a big female with plenty of eggs and in the end, this proved to be the saving grace for 2018. “Mark was able to work his magic once again and get the absolute optimal results from that one family … enough that by early summer he was able to transfer 450 summer fingerlings to MNRF’s Harwood Fish Culture Station,” said Dave Boxall long time Muskie Canada member LSMRP organizer. Here, just like Mark was able to do at Fleming, staff did an amazing job ensuring cannibalism was kept at a minimum and only a small handful of mortalities were the result. So … by November stocking time about 1,700 fall fingerlings from Fleming were ready to be stocked into Lake Simcoe and 400 from Harwood were prepared for Georgian Bay at Severn Sound. “The major preparation procedure is basically switching all of the Muskie over from a pellet based feed – over to minnows. This helps acclimate all those individuals to the type of food source they’ll need to chase down and capture in their new homes if they want to survive” concluded Dave.
It was agreed beforehand that a portion of the total stocking numbers in 2018 should go back into the waterbody where the parents came from. On November 15, a crew from MNRF Aurora District, the UGLMU and Harwood Fish Culture, braved icy and snowy conditions to travel out on Georgian Bay in their Jon Boat to release 397 Muskie. “As Wil Wegman, with MNRF Aurora District who’s been connected with the LSMRP mentioned on his Instagram and Facebook Page, many of those young Muskie were stocked around the exact same area of Severn Sound where their parents were captured in trap nets that very spring and where that very important egg collection was conducted,” said Ian.
Stocking Muskie back into Lake Simcoe occurred successfully as well. On November 3rd, over 35 volunteers from Orillia Fish and Game, Muskies Canada, Bayshore Village Community, Fleming College and the Aurora Bassmasters … converged on Barnstable Bay in Lake Simcoe, and released 500 healthy young fingerlings between 7-9 inches from Fleming. On November 6th, Fleming students travelled by boat to the south side of Georgina Island and released 587 Muskie between there and the mainland. The Talbot River was the final stop for Muskie stocking in 2018 and for at least a year while the stocking portion of the LSMRP takes a one-year hiatus in 2019. Those 589 fall fingerlings and four larger yearlings were stocked throughout the river in prime habitat with more shiners to feed on than they could eat in a lifetime.
Ian Young is past president of MCI and lead for the LSMRP for his organization. “So after stocking over 20,000 Muskie into Lake Simcoe since 2005, it looks like, at Press Time anyways, that LSMRP will be taking at least a year off from capturing Muskie in the spring for egg collections and from raising Muskie at the hatcheries and releasing fall fingerlings in November”. There are several reasons for this hiatus, including current spending and travel restrictions on MNRF District staff since the new government came into power here in Ontario,
“After 14 years we are nearing the end of the project and it is now timely to sit back and re-evaluate where the program should go from here. Without trap netting and stocking, in 2019 and beyond, I know MNRF staff would like to focus more on monitoring Lake Simcoe and it’s rivers to try and determine how successful the program has been and where all those stocked Muskie and their offspring can be found. So here at Muskies Canada, we are on board with that in a big way and we look forward to an ongoing partnership with the fine staff at MNRF. We have made some great working relationships and personal friendships with these dedicated Muskie enthusiasts and we know that won’t end anytime soon,” concluded Ian.
Quentin Rougemont1, Anne Carrier2, Jeremy Le-luyer3, Anne-Laure Ferchaud1, John M. Farrell4, Daniel Hatin5, Philippe Brodeur6, Louis Bernatchez1
1Département de biologie, Institut de biologie intégrative et des systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, G1V 0A6, Québec, Canada 2Département de techniques du milieu naturel, Centre d’études collégiales à Chibougamau, Cégep de Saint-Félicien, Chibougamau, G8P 2E9, Canada 3IFREMER, Unité Ressources Marines en Polynésie, Centre Océanologique du Pacifique – Vairao – BP 49 – 98179 Taravao – Tahiti – Polynésie Française 4Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 13210, Syracuse, New York, USA. 5Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Direction de la gestion de la faune de l’Estrie-Montréal-Montérégie-Laval, 201, Place Charles-Le Moyne, Longueuil, Québec, J4K 2T5, Canada 6Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Direction de la gestion de la faune de la Mauricie et du Centre-du-Québec, 100, rue Laviolette, bureau 207, Trois-Rivières, Québec, G9A 5S9, Canada
Over the past decades, an increasing number of fish species have undergone strong decrease in their abundance due to various human activities. Such activities may prevent the free movement of fish, generates pollution and habitat loss, overfishing and many additional problems. To overcome these demographic declines, numerous stocking programs have been implemented to sustain fish populations worldwide. This is the case of the Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) in the province of Québec, Canada. The species is renowned for his trophy-size specimens which are highly prized by anglers. However, Muskellunge has undergone strong decline in abundance during the first half of the 20th century in the waters of the St. Lawrence River, especially in the greater Montréal region. Consequently, Muskellunge from Ontario and New York State were used for stocking over 1.5 million of individuals from 1950 to 1997. From 1950 to 1965, eggs initially taken from the Chautauqua Lake (New York State, USA) were transferred to the Lachine government hatchery in Québec where fry were reared before being released into the St. Lawrence River, several of its main tributaries and inland lakes. From 1965 to 1986, adults from Lake Joseph were used as source for stocking. Finally, from 1986 to 1997, eggs from Lake Tremblant were used. Muskellunge populations from Joseph and Tremblant Lakes were originally introduced with fish from the Lake Chautauqua source (see details about stocking history in Carrier et al.).
An optimal management of Muskellunge can only be achieved through a detailed understanding of its population structure and of the extant of connectivity between distinct populations. In particular, the existence of genetically differentiated populations with some level of reproductive isolation must be taken into account for sound conservation and management practices. Moreover, genetically distinct groups of fish may evolve to local adaptation in response to particular habitat characteristics (temperature, water chemistry, etc.). Those adaptations allow fish from distinct populations to optimize their reproduction and survival in a given habitat. It is therefore necessary to preserve the natural genetic variation present within a species in order to ensure its potential to evolve and survive in an ever changing environment. Such knowledge will be fundamental to define management units for fishery management, habitat protection and restoration, which is particularly important in highly connected systems such as the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries. Finally, genetics can inform on the extent of hybridization that may have occurred between wild, local fish and fish artificially introduced by stocking.
The genetic structure and diversity of Muskellunge within the St. Lawrence River, its major tributaries and inland lakes of Québec have never been studied. Therefore, the present study has been realised to : 1) evaluate the level of genetic structure in Muskellunge, 2) measure the impact of historical stocking on the genetic structure and diversity, and 3) define evolutionary significant units relevant for population management and to maintain a sustainable resource for angling.
Sampling and genetic characteristics
A total of 662 Muskellunge have been captured in 22 sites for approximately 24 fish per location (Figure 1). Those samples were essentially obtained with the help of professional fishing guides (Mr. Marc Thorpe, Mr. Mike Lazarus, and Mr. Michael Philips), their customers, volunteer sport fishermen, and wildlife technicians. A tiny portion of a pelvic fin was clipped for each fish (1 cm², 100 mg) and preserved in alcohol for further genetic analyses in the laboratory of L. Bernatchez at Laval University in Québec. All fish were released after capture.
This extensive sampling made it possible to cover the sections of the St. Lawrence River, from the Thousand Islands region to Lake Saint-Pierre, its major tributaries and some inland lakes of Québec. The major sources of stocking were also sampled : 1) Chautauqua (New York State) and Pigeon (Kawartha Lakes system, Ontario) Lakes, 2) Joseph Lake, and 3) Tremblant Lake. Muskellunge was introduced in these last two lakes and were used as sources for stocking a few years later. Finally, Lake Traverse located in the Mauricie region of Québec has never been stocked to our knowledge and was included in our study.
DNA from individual fish was extracted from the preserved biopsies in the laboratory. This DNA was then characterized using a new sequencing technology allowing to read each DNA variation over a large part of the fish genome. It was then possible to identify for each fish, over 16 000 genetic variants. Such variants were compared among individuals and among sampling sites, which allowed quantifying the genetic diversity of the species, its population structure and document the impact of past stocking events on the genetic makeup of wild populations.
Population genetic structure
The genetic results revealed a moderate level of genetic diversity compared with other freshwater fish species that have been studied using similar methods. The effective size of populations, estimated from genetic data, is the number of broods that reproduce effectively, thus transmitting their genetic background to their offspring. In general, the total number of fish in a population can be 10 to 100 times higher than the number of effective individuals. Effective population sizes were generally quite low among Muskellunge populations, especially for isolated lakes. In the St. Lawrence River, the estimate of the effective size was 669 for all sites grouped together. This value is considered moderate compared to other freshwater species, but reflects the unique characteristics of the Muskellunge life-cycle (high longevity, highest position in the food chain, solitary and territorial behaviours) and its typically low population density. These findings highlight the vulnerability of this species and the importance of applying specific protection measures to ensure its sustainability.
The measures of genetic differentiation and population structure suggest the existence of eight distinct genetic groups in the system under study. The first group includes the Muskellunge used as stocking sources and the sites directly derived from this source, namely Chautauqua, Joseph, Tremblant, Frontière, and Maskinongé Lakes, as well as the Chaudière and Saint-Maurice Rivers. This confirms the common origin of the muskellunge of these water bodies, all derived from the source of Lake Chautauqua (New York State). For the Chaudière and Saint-Maurice Rivers, available knowledge suggest that Muskellunge abundance was initially low in those systems, and that stocking would have established perennial populations. The second group corresponds to the l’Achigan River and the third group to the Yamaska River, which are genetically distinct from the St. Lawrence River. The fourth group consists of all sites within the St. Lawrence River, from the Thousand Islands to Lake Saint-Pierre. The fifth group is Lake des Deux-Montagnes, which is also genetically distinct from the Muskellunge of the whole St. Lawrence River. It is noteworthy that Muskellunge from Lake des Deux-Montagnes show a certain proportion of migration to Lake Saint-Louis. Most of these migratory individuals (83%) were found on the North shore of Lake Saint-Louis, which is fed by water coming from the Ottawa River. The sixth group consists of isolated lakes that have never been stocked, represented in this study by Lake Traverse. This body of water has a unique genetic makeup that needs to be preserved. The seventh group corresponds to Pigeon Lake (Kawartha Lakes system in Ontario), used for stocking to a lesser extent than other water bodies, and the eighth group is Lake Champlain.
Although the St. Lawrence River formed a single population, the genetic differentiation between individuals increased with distance between them. This pattern is a consequence of the geographically reduced dispersal of individuals across the entire St. Lawrence River. In addition, the extant of genetic variation observed in the St. Lawrence River proves to be continuous, that is, there are no real, highly differentiated genetic groups. This suggests that dispersal can occur freely from upstream to downstream, although it is obviously reduced upstream by the presence of the two major obstacles on the St. Lawrence River (Beauharnois and Moses-Saunders dams).
Fine scale analysis of genetic mixing patterns allowed us to estimate the effect of stocking on the genetic structure of populations (Figure 2). This analysis revealed that stocking had very little effect on the genetic integrity of wild populations in the St. Lawrence River. Indeed, we found very little evidence of genetic mixing of Chatauqua, Joseph or Tremblant Lakes strains used as source populations. Conversely, there is evidence of pronounced genetic mixing in some lakes and tributaries of the St. Lawrence, despite the fact that they have in most cases received smaller quantities of stocked fish than the St. Lawrence River. This is the case for the Saint-Maurice and Chaudière Rivers, as well as for Maskinongé Lake, where there was a mixture of local (represented in black in Figure 2) and introduced (represented in green in Figure 2) genetic makeups. The main hypothesis likely to explain this pattern is that stocking has had variable effects depending on the initial size of the populations being stocked. In general, it is expected that stocking done with individuals from different genetic groups, in this case individuals from distant lakes (differences in climate and habitat types), is potentially ineffective due to lack of adaptation of stocked individuals to local conditions. It is therefore possible that the individuals stocked in the St. Lawrence River had a low reproductive success and/or that hybrids resulting from reproduction were poorly adapted to local conditions, ultimately showing a low survival rate. Thus, non-native Muskellunge may have been displaced in the St. Lawrence, which potentially had a larger population size than isolated lakes or tributaries.
Our results suggest that from a genetic point of view, the entire St. Lawrence River, from the Thousand Islands region to Lake Saint-Pierre, can be considered as a single population within which genetic differentiation of individuals increase slightly with distance. Thus, a single management unit would be sufficient on the St. Lawrence River to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity in this system. Of course, individuals who are isolated by impassable obstacles should be managed locally. This is particularly the case of Lake St-François, enclosed by dams upstream (Moses-Saunders) and downstream (Beauharnois). The second management unit includes Lake des Deux-Montagnes, which is genetically different from the St. Lawrence River population. The third group consists of the tributaries of the St. Lawrence River, each representing a distinct unit with some nuance depending on the abundance of Muskellunge prior to stocking. Thus, l’Achigan and Yamaska Rivers showed little evidence of hybridization with stocked fish while the Chaudière and Saint-Maurice Rivers have a more pronounced genetic mixing profile with the stocking sources. The fourth group consists of lakes stocked directly from Chautauqua Lake (Joseph, Tremblant, and Frontière Lakes) which all share a strong genetic similarity with Chautauqua Lake. The fifth group includes lakes into which the Muskellunge was initially present (Maskinongé and Champlain Lakes) where apparently only modest mixing occurred. Finally, Traverse Lake is one of the few, if not the only unstocked natural population in Québec with a unique genetic makeup.
In conclusion, in systems previously unoccupied by Muskellunge or with a very low density of individuals, stocking has made it possible to sustain local populations in the long term and therefore, have helped to enhance recreational fishing activities. Although stocking has temporarily contributed to the species recruitment and to the Muskellunge fishery in the Montréal region of the St. Lawrence system (see the article of Carrier et al. in the present issue), it does not appear to have been successful in the long term, possibly because of the poor adaptation of the stocked individuals to the particular local conditions of a large river such as the St. Lawrence. However, they may have contributed to sustain the fishery on the short term (see Carrier et al. in the present issue). During your next fishing trip, for example on the St. Lawrence River or on Lake des Deux-Montagnes, you will be able to assert that you most likely caught native Muskellunge of local origin. Based on the results of this study, we recommend avoiding future stocking without detailed knowledge of stock abundance, diversity and genetic structure, and of the level of exchange between them. Actions aiming habitat protection and restoration should rather be prioritized in order to optimize the success of natural reproduction.
We express our gratitude to muskies anglers who collected most of the samples, especially to Marc Thorpe, Mike Lazarus and Michael Phillips. We thank Christopher Legard (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation) for collecting and sharing Chautauqua Lake samples. We thank Samuel Cartier for collecting Lake Champlain fish. Thanks to Chris Wilson (Aquatic Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry) for sharing Pigeon Lake DNA samples and to Christopher Wilson (Fish Culture Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry) for sharing hatcheries and stocking history between Ontario and Québec. Thanks to Shawn Good (Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department) and Jeffrey J. Loukmas (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation) for sharing historical management and stocking history of Lake Champlain. We also thank Nicolas Auclair, Florent Archambault, Rémi Bacon, Christian Beaudoin, Anabel Carrier, Chantal Côté, Julie Deschesnes, François Girard, Guillaume Lemieux, Louise Nadon, Yves Paradis, Geneviève Richard, and Éliane Valiquette for logistic, field and laboratory assistance. Funding was provided by the ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec, Canadian Research Chair in Genomics and Conservation of Aquatic Resources, Fondation héritage faune (Fédération québécoise des chasseurs et pêcheurs), Ressources Aquatiques Québec, and Muskies Inc.
This project is part of an initiative undertaken since 2010 by the ministère de la Faune et des Parcs (MFFP) and its many partners to update knowledge about Québec Muskellunge and optimize its management. To measure the current state of the Muskellunge sport fishery in the St. Lawrence River and the des Deux-Montagnes Lake, a survey of the catches was conducted from 2010 to 2013, with the collaboration of three professional fishing guides. In the section of the river located between Montréal and Sorel and in Lake Saint-Pierre, the lower abundance of young specimens harvested by sport fishermen suggested lower recruitment of young Muskellunge in these two bodies of water, compared to Lakes Saint-Louis and des Deux-Montagnes (see Carrier et al. in the present issue for more details).
Some anthropogenic activities have a negative impact on the St. Lawrence ecosystem. They have recently resulted in a deterioration of aquatic habitats, particularly in Lake Saint-Pierre. Nearly 5 000 ha of fish breeding, nursery, and growth habitats in the floodplain has been altered due to the intensification of agricultural practices over the last three decades (de la Chenelière et al. 2014). The loss of large areas of submerged aquatic vegetation beds since the mid-2000s (Figure 1; Magnan et al. 2017) and the proliferation of benthic cyanobacteria (Hudon et al. 2012), which develop on the bottom of Lake Saint-Pierre, have also been documented. These wetlands represent growth habitats and refuges for several fish species. This situation raises fundamental questions about the potential effects of habitat loss on a large predator species such as Muskellunge. In addition, critical breeding and growth habitats of juvenile Muskellunge have never been identified in Lake Saint-Pierre, which limits our ability to properly protect and restore habitats of this species. A study was therefore initiated to monitor adult Muskellunge movements during the spawning and growth seasons, to determine habitat characteristics selected by fish and to locate breeding and rearing areas of juveniles.
The identification of movement patterns and the precise location of Muskellunge has been made possible through the use of advanced telemetry technologies.
Two types of transmitters have been inserted into the fish abdomen: an acoustic transmitter, which is detected by stationary receivers at strategic locations in the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries (Figure 2) and a radio transmitter including an external antenna visible on the ventral portion of the fish, allowing precise location of the specimens using a mobile receiver, operated from a plain or a boat (Figure 3). In spring 2017 and spring 2018, a total of about 80 fixed receivers were deposited annually near the waterbed between Montréal and the Gentilly sector (Figure 4). These receivers, recovered at the end of each autumn, continuously record the passage of tagged fish. The number of the individual, the date and time of passage are then extracted and used for migration analysis purposes.
This information provides information on habitat use and residence time of Muskellunge in various sections of the St. Lawrence River and its tributaries. They also help defining the periods and patterns of seasonal migration of the species. In addition, accurate, real-time fish telemetry locations provide information on the location and characteristics of adult staging sites during spring breeding and during summer and fall growth seasons.
A total of 21 Muskellunge were caught by sport fishing thanks to the valuable collaboration of two professional anglers, Mr. Mike Lazarus and Mr. Marc Thorpe, and to the MFFP wildlife technicians. The fish were surgically fitted with transmitters during the fall of 2016 and fall of 2017. Females and males ranged from 38 to 52 inches in size (Figure 5). The implementation of the transmitters carried out by the wildlife technicians of the MFFP went very well. All Muskellunge were located on at least one occasion, approximately 6 to 18 months after being tagged, indicating that all individuals survived after surgery.
Ten individuals tagged in the fall of 2016 were followed by boat and plain between April 25 and May 24, 2017. During this period, which includes migration to breeding sites and spawning activities, 112 locations of individual Muskellunge were noted. The habitat selected by each individual was also characterized (vegetation, substrate, temperature, current velocity, oxygen concentration, depth, etc.). The locations recorded in the spring of 2017 showed that all Muskellunge tagged at Lake Saint-Pierre during the previous fall used the Lake Saint-Pierre area to reproduce. The data revealed that 38 % of radio tagged individuals used Lake Saint-Pierre tributaries during the breeding season (April-May). Specimens were located in the du Loup, Saint-François and Nicolet Rivers, as well as in the Chenal Tardif (a section of the Saint-François River). After breeding, these individuals migrated to feeding habitats in the St. Lawrence River. The rest of the individuals used Lake St. Pierre wetlands during the spawning season. In the spring, Muskellunge were found at depths ranging from 0.6 to 8.2 m (mean : 3.1 m), in low current velocity, mostly lower than 0.1 m/s. In the majority of cases, Muskellunge were found in habitats showing submerged vegetation of moderate to high abundance.
The analysis of movements recorded in 2017, based on data collected by dozens of fixed receivers, showed that after the breeding season, the majority of fish tagged in the fall of 2016 in Lake Saint-Pierre spent some time in this area during the summer and fall of 2017. However, during summer, 60% of the individuals made large-scale migrations towards the stretch of the river located between Montréal and Sorel. Some Muskellunge even reached the stations located near the Jacques Cartier Bridge in Montréal.
In order to track the movements of the 21 tagged individuals, the telemetry monitoring work will continue in 2018 and 2019. All the results collected during this project will enable to identify and map the preferential habitats for Muskellunge, particularly for reproduction, which could be protected or restored as needed. The preliminary results of 2017 already underline the role of the shallow marshes of Lake Saint-Pierre and some of its tributaries for the reproduction of the species. It will be important to validate these observations over the next few years, to estimate the contribution of these various sectors to the recruitment of the species and to evaluate the state of health of habitats. In addition, the long-distance migrations reported in 2017 emphasize that the management of Muskellunge and its habitats must be done at the scale of the entire studied fluvial section, including the downstream portion of the tributaries. This finding is supported by the results of the genetic structure of populations, which demonstrated the homogeneity of the genetic signature of the Muskellunge population in the St. Lawrence stretch located between Lake Saint-Louis and Lake Saint-Pierre (see Rougemont et al. in the present issue for details on population genetics).
Warning to anglers
If you catch a marked Muskellunge, you must release it after noting the fish and telephone number written on the tag that is inserted at the base of the dorsal fin (it is often necessary to scrape the surface of the label to clearly see the numbers therein). Be careful, it is important to avoid taking the specimen out of the water and to limit the handling time. Moreover, these tips apply to all Muskellunge catches, whether tagged or not. Then contact a MFFP biologist at the number written on the tag to provide the date, location of capture, and, if possible, pictures of the ventral portion of the fish.
We would like to thank all the partners who participated in the financing and the realization of the telemetry work. Special thanks to professional fishermen Mike Lazarus and Marc Thorpe for their support throughout the development of the study and for their participation in the capture of the specimens. Thanks also to Florent Archambault, Nicolas Auclair, Rémi Bacon, Virginie Boivin, Chantal Côté, Charles-Étienne Gagnon, Guillaume Lemieux, Yves Paradis, and René Perreault for their support and for all efforts in the field. The project is made possible by the collaboration and financial support of the ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, of the Comité ZIP du lac Saint-Pierre, of Muskies Canada, of the Fondation de la faune du Québec, of Thomas marine, of the Fondation héritage faune (Fédération québécoise des chasseurs et des pêcheurs) and of some private donors.
De la Chenelière, V., P. Brodeur et M. Mingelbier (2014). Restauration des habitats du lac Saint-Pierre : un prérequis au rétablissement de la perchaude. Le Naturaliste canadien. 138 (2) : 50-61.
Hudon, C., A. Cattaneo, A.-M. Tourville Poirier, P. Brodeur, P. Dumont, Y. Mailhot, Y.-P. Amyot, S.-P. Despatie and Y. De Lafontaine (2012). Oligotrophication from wetland epuration alters the riverine trophic network and carrying capacity for fish. Aquatic Sciences. 74 : 495-511.
Magnan, P., P. Brodeur, É. Paquin, N. Vachon, Y. Paradis, P. Dumont et Y. Mailhot (2017). État du stock de perchaudes du lac Saint-Pierre en 2016. Comité scientifique sur la gestion de la perchaude du lac Saint-Pierre. Chaire de recherche du Canada en écologie des eaux douces, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières et ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs. vii + 34 pages + annexes.
Anne Carrier ¹ ², Philippe Brodeur³, Daniel Hatin⁴ and Louis Bernatchez¹ ¹Département de biologie, Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, G1V 0A6, Québec, Canada
²Département de Techniques du milieu naturel, Centre d’études collégiales à Chibougamau, Cégep de Saint-Félicien, Chibougamau, G8P 2E9, Canada
³Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Direction de la gestion de la faune de la Mauricie et du Centre-du-Québec, 100, rue Laviolette, bureau 207, Trois-Rivières, G9A 5S9, Canada
⁴Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, Direction de la gestion de la faune de l’Estrie-Montréal- Montérégie-Laval, 201, Place Charles-LeMoyne, Longueuil, Québec, J4K 2T5, Canada
Muskellunge is one of the most mythical and impressive fish species. Over the past two centuries, biologists and Muskellunge anglers have documented many fascinating aspects of its biology. For example, it’s impressive size (Bernatchez and Giroux 2012), its unusual migration abilities (Kerr and Jones 2017) and even its surprising reproductive behavior (Crossman 1990, Jennings et al. 2011). The history regarding Muskellunge is fascinating, as evidenced by the origin of its name and the history of its management, which reveal the particular importance of Muskellunge in Québec.
This article is a non-exhaustive historical overview of some of the most important aspects of Muskellunge management in Québec. It includes some historical references regarding the nomenclature and taxonomy of Muskellunge, its original and contemporary spatial distribution and the stocking history. This article reports the work done as part of a Master’s thesis, which first aimed at gathering available historical information that would support the interpretation of genetic data on Muskellunge in Québec waters (see article of Rougemont et al. in this issue).
Taxonomy and Québec folklore
As early as the colonization time of New France, documents from the Société Provancher mentions that the first viceroy of France, Sieur Jean-François La Rocque de Roberval, used the basin of the Maskinongé River as his fishing territory. At the time, Muskellunge was a well-known species as evidenced by the multiple presumed Amerindian roots of its name, which meant big pike, ugly pike or spotted pike (Crossman 1986, MacCaughey 1917). Gradually, these appellations have derived to become « long mask » or « elongated mask » in Québec French. Today, the two generally accepted names are « maskinongé » in Canada and « Muskellunge » in the United States, but there are between 40 and 94 common names in French only (see Mellen 1917, Chambers 1923, Weed 1927 and Crossman 1986 for an exhaustive inventory of the different names and their origin). As mentioned by Crossman (1986), probably no other fish has, in a single language, as many forms or spelling of its common name. According to Weed (1927), the number of its common names is a fairly reliable index of the extent to which a fish attracts attention. This partly explains this diverse nomenclature, but as Mongeau (1976) points out, this taxonomic confusion also certainly comes from its great resemblance to the Northern pike (Esox lucius) and the fact that it has been recognized quite lately as a different species from his cousin.
Commercial fishing and natural distribution in the 19th century
Since the nomenclature of the species was highly variable until the beginning of the 20th century, it is very difficult to interpret observations regarding the Muskellunge distribution until the 1900s. In the 19th century, Muskellunge was highly prised by native and non-native anglers and, because of the quality of its flesh and its imposing size, it contributed to a significant commercial fishery in Québec. Although today the opinions are mixed about the taste of the Muskellunge flesh, the naturalist Constantine Rafinesque mentioned in 1818 that « it is one of the best fish (…) its flesh is very delicate and divides easily like salmon, in large white patches like snow » (MacCaughey 1917). According to historical records of the Canadian fisheries management authorities (Crossman 1986), nearly 2.9 million pounds, representing approximately 192 535 Muskellunge, were harvested by the commercial fishery in Québec from 1868 to 1936. Interestingly, commercial catches of Muskellunge in the waters of the Montréal area accounted for 90 % of the landings of this species throughout the province (Fry et al. 1942). Muskellunge commercial fishing ceased in 1936.
The historical texts suggest that native Muskellunge was found only in southern Québec, even if its northern and southern distribution limits are only very slightly defined. Its distribution was likely limited to the waters of the St. Lawrence River watershed and some of its tributaries from the Ottawa River to Québec City (Small 1883, Dymond 1939, Vézina 1977). According to information available at the end of the 19th century, native Muskellunge was found from the southern border of the province (including the Champlain Lake and the Richelieu River watersheds) to Northwest of Outaouais, Laurentides, Lanaudière, and Mauricie regions (Dymond 1939). Specifically, Dymond (1939), Small (1883), Halkett (1906 and 1907), and Montpetit (1897) report that Muskellunge was present (1) in the Rideau River north of Merrickville (Outaouais, Québec), (2) in the Ottawa River south of Rapides des Joachim (MRC de Pontiac, Outaouais, Québec), south of the Petawawa River and up to Travers Lake (Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario), and (3) in several lakes connected to the Gatineau and du Lièvre Rivers, including Gilmour, Donaldson, and Plumbago Lakes (MRC Collines-de-l’Outaouais, Outaouais, Québec). In addition, some isolated populations were discovered in 1968 after the dismantling of private fishing clubs in the Mauricie region, specifically in the des Envies River watershed, which is a tributary of the Batiscan River, where the Traverse Lake (Potvin 1973, Pageau et al. 1978) analyzed in the study of Rougemont et al. (see article in this issue) is located. Finally, according to the interpretation of Fry et al. (1942), quoted by Robitaille and Cotton (1992), the most important native population in Québec would have been in Lake St-Louis, a fluvial lake of the St. Lawrence River.
Active management period
Muskellunge has been one of the most stocked fish species in Québec (Dumont 1991). Prior to 1950, few Muskellunge stocking in Québec were recorded in the literature (MacCaughey 1917, Dymond 1939, Small 1883, Halkett 1906 and 1907). At the end of the first half of the 20th century, a significant decline of Muskellunge populations in the waters of the St. Lawrence River and of the Montréal Archipelago, associated with overfishing and habitat loss, raised worries and questions. Therefore, the wildlife management authorities undertook a major restoration project which included the construction of the very first Muskellunge hatchery facility in Lachine (borough of Montréal city, Québec) (Pictures 1 to 3), as well as the development of a local expertise on esocids breeding (Vezina 1977). In 1950, these actions led to the beginning of stocking, which were adapted to contemporary knowledge in 1985. Muskellunge stocking continued until 1997. During the same period, the species was also introduced, with or without success, in more than 80 Québec water bodies in order to create new opportunities and enhance existing Muskellunge populations (Vézina 1977, Dumont 1991, Vincent and Legendre 1974, Brodeur et al. 2013, de la Fontaine, Y. unpublished). In a few rare cases, Muskellunge introduction has been used in an attempt to control competing species in brook trout lakes. Introducing a top-predator into the food chain obviously had an impact on the fish communities.
Muskellunge farming began in Québec at the Lachine hatchery in 1950. Due to water supply problems, breeding was transferred to the Baldwin Mills hatchery in 1964 (now known as the Baldwin-Coaticook provincial hatchery) (Dumont 1991). Following unsuccessful attempts to breed Muskellunge from several local lakes such as Lake des Deux-Montagnes (Montréal area) and the Gilmour, Donaldson, and Plumbago Lakes (Outaouais) (MPC 1961, Vezina 1977, Crossman and Goodchild 1978), embrocated eggs were imported from the Bemus Point hatchery (New York, USA) and, to a lesser extent, from the Deer Lake hatchery (Ontario, Canada) to start production (Kerr 2001, Dufour and Paulhus 1977, Christopher Wilson and Christopher Legard, personal communication). Muskellunge from both hatcheries originated respectively from the Chautauqua Lake (New York, USA) and from Stony Lake, Buckhorn Lake, and from the Crowe River, these three last water bodies being part of the Kawartha Lakes system in Ontario. According to the information we gathered, it appears that all the lakes used by these hatcheries have also been stocked with an unknown Muskellunge source to support their respective fishery (Christopher Wilson and Christopher Legard, personal communication). Both of these hatcheries, as well as the one of Lachine, are no longer in operation.
From 1965 to 1986, Joseph Lake (Centre-du-Québec, Québec) was used as a broodstock source to supply the Baldwin Mills hatchery (Dumont 1991). Subsequently, from 1986 to 1997, Lake Tremblant (Laurentides, Québec) was used as the source population. Muskellunge was originally introduced in both lakes from the American or Ontarian sources (see Figure 1 – simplified stocking history in Québec). The results of the genetic study confirmed that the American source was the most likely for both lakes.
Stocking, carried out over several decades in the Montréal area, has been effective in improving the stock status and maintaining the Muskellunge sport fishery. In fact, an analysis of Muskellunge recruitment measured from 1962 to 1977 revealed that 55 % of the annual abundance of young Muskellunge could be explained by the number of yearly stocked individuals and the abundance of young Muskellunge stocked the previous year (cannibalism
and/or competition effects) (Dumont 1991). In 1998, the improvement of the Muskellunge population structure, distributed over a long time period, and the presence of natural recruitment justified the end of stocking (Cloutier 1987, Dumont 1991). Since then, no Muskellunge stocking has been done in Québec.
Integrating collaborative science to Muskellunge management
In parallel to the management actions undertaken by the Québec government, a general reflection on fishing practices and a growing interest in the conservation of a high quality fishery focusing on trophy-size specimens emerged, leading to the creation of Muskies Canada (Wachelka 2008a,b,c) and to the beginning of a long collaboration between muskies anglers and the Québec wildlife management authorities. Muskellunge is not vulnerable to capture by the scientific fishing gears used to monitor fish communities in the St. Lawrence River. Monitoring the sport harvest of Muskellunge through angling surveys is therefore an excellent alternative to contribute to its management and to allow evaluation of the effectiveness of the management measures.
To evaluate the status of Muskellunge stocks, a study was conducted in the 1990s in collaboration with the Montréal chapter of Muskies Canada. From 1994 to 1997, five anglers tagged and released 808 Muskellunge, mainly in the Montréal area. The results showed that a few hours of fishing were enough to catch a Muskellunge, whereas in the 1970s, an experienced angler needed approximately 100 hours of fishing to catch a single specimen. After three years of survey, 88 tagged fish were recaptured by anglers, which corresponded to a recapture rate of 11 %, considered relatively low and indicative of a total Muskellunge abundance of several thousands of specimens (Pierre Dumont, personal communication) The gradual increase in the extent of the Muskellunge size structure suggested by the fishing surveys and the presence of a natural production of young Muskellunge justified the cessation of stocking in 1998 (Dumont 1991).
To update the data on the Muskellunge fishery in the St. Lawrence River (from Lake Saint-François to Lake Saint-Pierre) and in Lake des Deux-Montagnes, a second survey was conducted from 2010 to 2013, more than a decade after stocking ended. This second study was conducted with the invaluable collaboration of three professional anglers recognized in Québec, Mr. Marc Thorpe, Mr. Mike Lazarus and Mr. Michael Phillips. A total of 2 569 Muskellunge were captured, of which 2 162 were tagged by three volunteer anglers. Of these tagged fish, 108 were recaptured. The order of magnitude of recapture rates was low in all studied sectors (3.7 % to 4.8 %). Compared to the study carried out in the Montréal area from 1994 to 1997, the recapture rate reported from 2010 to 2013 was twice lower (4.8 % compared to 11 %). Since the recapture rate is generally inversely proportional to the total abundance of a population, this result suggests that the abundance of Muskellunge in the Montréal area has increased since the stocking ended, at least for medium to high size fish, targeted by anglers.
According to archived data from 1918 to 1927, 19 % of Muskellunge caught in Lake Saint-Louis exceeded the legal minimum size of 44 inches (Figure 2). In 1973, this proportion was of 16 % and then increased to almost 50 % in the late 1990s and to 54 % during the 2010-2013 period. This improvement over several decades can be explained by stocking, combined with the enforcement of a minimum legal size of 38 inches in 1986, which has been increased to 44 inches in 1998 (Figure 2). Because of the presence of large specimens, the waters of the St. Lawrence River and of Lake des Deux-Montagnes are now identified as sites of great interest for Muskellunge anglers. In the section of the St. Lawrence River between Montréal and Lake Saint-Pierre, the low abundance of young specimens smaller than 35 inches in the Muskellunge sport harvest suggests a lower recruitment, compared to Lake Saint-Louis and Lake des Deux-Montagnes (Figure 3). This result justified the realization of a study conducted by the ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs (MFFP) and its numerous partners that aims to identify the essential habitats of the species by using telemetry
(see the article of Brodeur et al. in this issue).
The most recent fishery survey has generated some preliminary knowledge about Muskellunge migration. Thus, between 2010 and 2013, the majority of marked individuals (95 %) recaptured by the sport fishery within six months after tagging or one to two years after, were in the same body of water where they had been tagged. The distances measured between specimens capture and recapture were generally less than a few kilometers, both on a one year scale and between years (72.7 % and 58.1 % of recaptures within 5 km from the tagging location, respectively). This result suggests that, although Muskellunge can travel long distances, particularly during the breeding season, a large proportion of individuals return to specific areas corresponding generally to large vegetation beds favorable to feeding. This result demonstrates the importance of preserving and restoring the submerged aquatic vegetation beds of the St. Lawrence River. However, large-scale movements between the various sectors of the river have been observed between Lake Saint-Pierre and the Montréal-Sorel section, with distances of up to 58 km. This result was recently corroborated by the preliminary results of the telemetry study, which shows that a certain proportion of the Muskellunge tagged at Lake Saint-Pierre migrate upstream during the feeding season (see article by Brodeur et al. in this issue). These observations of large scale movements also corroborate the connectivity existing throughout the St. Lawrence River system revealed by genetic analyses.
To maintain the trophy status of the species, which can maintain and improve the quality of the Muskellunge fishery, a regular review of the stock status and management is required. Since 2010, a study aiming at gathering new knowledge on several aspects of Muskellunge biology has been conducted by the MFFP and its numerous partners. This vast study will contribute to Muskellunge management in Québec. To date, this initiative has led to a retrospective of historical management, reported in this article, to a genetic analysis of Muskellunge populations (see article by Rougemont et al. in this issue), and to a study aiming to identify essential Muskellunge habitats between Montréal and Lake Saint-Pierre. Some anglers report a recent decline in the quality of the Muskellunge fishery in some inland water bodies of Québec, which remains to be measured. Muskellunge studies based on angling surveys have thus been underway for some years in the Maskinongé Lake and the Ottawa River (see Deschesnes in this issue).
We thank the following people for their valuable collaboration. We would like to acknowledge the involvement of the Muskellunge anglers who participated to the 2010-2013 angling survey: Marc Thorpe, Mike Lazarus, and Michael Phillips. Special thanks to Peter Levick (Muskies Canada), Chris Wilson (Aquatic Research and Monitoring Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry), and John Farrell (Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, State University of New York) who shared with us many information on Muskellunge management. Thanks to Christopher Legard (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation) and Christopher Wilson (Fish Culture Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry) for sharing the Chautauqua Lake and Deer Lake hatcheries history. Thanks to Steven Kerr (retired biologist, Fisheries Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources) for his invaluable advice and for sharing his knowledge on the history of Muskellunge management in Québec. Thanks to Shawn Good (Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department) and Jeffrey J. Loukmas (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation) for sharing management and stocking history of Champlain Lake. We also thank the Fédération québécoise des chasseurs et des pêcheurs, Ressources Aquatiques Québec and Muskies Inc. for their financial support. Funding was also provided by the ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs du Québec and by the Canada Research Chair in Genomics and Aquatic Resources Conservation.
Bernatchez, L. et M. Giroux (2012). Les poissons d’eau douce du Québec et leur répartition dans l’est du Canada. 2e éd., Ottawa, Canada.
Brodeur, P., D. Hatin et R. Bacon (2013). Suivi du maskinongé dans le Saint-Laurent et le lac des Deux-Montagnes. Dans: Atelier sur la faune aquatique, 19-21 février 2013, Sainte-Foy, Québec.
Chambers, E.T.D. (1923). The maskinonge: a question of priority in nomenclature. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society (1922) 52: 171-177.
Cloutier, L. (1987). Le maskinongé (Esox masquinongy). Dans : Problématique de la conservation et de la mise en valeur d’espèces de poissons d’eau douce au Québec. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Québec.
Crossman, E. J. (1986). The noble muskellunge: a review. In : Managing muskies: a treatise on the biology and propagation of Muskellunge in North America (éd. Gordon HE), p.1-13. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md.
Crossman, E. J. (1990). Reproductive homing in Muskellunge, Esox masquinongy. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 47(9): 1803-1812. doi:10.1139/f90-205
De la Fontaine, Y. (non publié). Muskellunge stocking in southern Québec waters.
Dufour, M. and P. J. Paulhus (1977). L’élevage et l’ensemencement du maskinongé au Québec. Dans : Compte rendu du 10e atelier sur les poissons d’eau chaude, p. 117-127. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche.
Dumont, P. (1991). Les ensemencements de maskinongé, de truite brune et de truite arc-en-ciel dans les eaux de la plaine de Montréal. Dans : Colloque sur l’ensemencement, p. 30-41. Conseil de l’aquaculture et des pêches.
Fry, F., J.-P. Cuerrier et G. Préfontaine (1942). Première croissance du maskinongé dans le lac Saint-Louis en 1941. Dans : Rapport de la Station biologique de Montréal et de la Station biologique du Parc des Laurentides pour l’année 1941, p. 170-175. Fascicule 2, appendice VII, Manuscrit.
Halkett, A. (1906). Report of the Canadian Fisheries Museum. In : 38th Annual report, p. 362-370. Department of marine & fisheries, Fisheries Branch. Appendix number 14.
Halkett, A. (1907). Report of the Canadian Fisheries Museum. In : 40th Annual report, p. 321-349. Department of marine & fisheries, Fisheries Branch. Appendix number 14.
Jennings, M. J., G. R. Hatzenbeler and J. M. Kampa (2011). Spring capture site fidelity of adult muskellunge in inland lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 31(3): 461-467.
Kerr S. J. and T. A. Lasenby (2001). Esocid stocking: an annotated bibliography and literature review. Fish and Wildlife Branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Peterborough, Ontario. 138 p. and appendix.
Kerr J. S. and Jones B. (2017). Movements of Muskellunge in the Saint-John River based on a volunteer tagging project, 2006-2015. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 85: 39-50.
MacCaughey V. (1917). The Chautauqua Mascalonge or Muskalunge. Dans : B. W. Huebsh (dir.), The natural history of Chautauqua (p. 80-83) [En ligne], [https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/71239#page/7/mode/1up].
Miller L. M., J. M. Farrell, K. L. Kapuscinski, K. Scribner, B. L. Sloss, K. Turnquist and C. C. Wilson (2017). A review of muskellunge population genetics: implications for management and future research needs. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 85: 385-414.
Ministère des Pêcheries et de la Chasse de la Province de Québec (1961). Contribution de la station piscicole de Lachine à l’étude de maskinongé. Dans : Journal de bord de l’office de biologie.
Mellen, I.M. (1917). Twenty four ways of spelling the name of a fish (muskellunge). New York Zoology Society Bulletin 20, p. 1558.
Mongeau, J .R. et G. Massé (1976). Les poissons de la région de Montréal, la pêche sportive et commerciale, les ensemencements, les frayères, la contamination par le mercure et les PCB. Ministère du Loisir de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Service de l’aménagement et de l’exploitation de la faune, Montréal, Québec. Rapport technique no 06-13. xviii + 286 p.
Mongeau, J. R., J. Leclerc et J. Brisebois J. (1980). La répartition géographique des poissons, les ensemencements, la pêche sportive et commerciale, les frayères et la bathymétrie du fleuve Saint-Laurent dans le bassin de Laprairie et les rapides de Lachine. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Service de l’aménagement et de l’exploitation de la faune. Rapport technique no 06-29. 145 p.
Pageau, G., Y. Gravel and V. Legendre (1978). Distribution and value of the esocidae in Québec waters. Dans : Compte rendu du 10e atelier sur les poissons d’eau chaude, p. 1-7. Ministère du Loisir de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Direction de la recherche faunique.
Potvin, C. (1973). Inventaire ichtyologique du bassin de la rivière des Envies. Découverte de populations indigènes de maskinongé. Ministère du Loisir de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Direction de la recherche faunique.
Robitaille, J. A. et F. Cotton (1992). Bilan des connaissances sur le maskinongé (Esox masquinongy) et sur ses populations dans le Saint-Laurent. Ministère du Loisir, de la Chasse et de la Pêche, Direction de la gestion des espèces et des habitats. Rapport technique, p. 1-55.
Small, H. B. (1883). Fishes of the Ottawa District. Transactions of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club (1882-1883), 4: 31-49.
Turnquist, K. N., W. A. Larson, J. M. Farrell, P. A. Hanchin, K .L., Kapuscinski, L. M. Miller, K. T. Scribner, C .C., Wilson and B. L. Sloss (2017). Genetic structure of muskellunge in the Great Lakes region and the effects of supplementation on genetic integrity of wild populations. Journal of Great Lakes Research, 43(6): 1141-1152. doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2017.09.005
Vézina, R. (1977). Les introductions de maskinongé, Esox masquinongy, au Québec et leurs résultats. Dans : Compte rendu du 10e atelier sur les poissons d’eau chaude, p. 129-135. Ministère du Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la Pêche du Québec, Service de l’aménagement de la faune.
Vincent, B. et V. Legendre (1974). Répartition géographique du maskinongé, Esox maskinongy, dans le district des Laurentides. Compilation 1972. District de Montréal, Service de l’aménagement de la faune et Service de la recherche biologique. Ministère du Tourisme, de la Chasse et de la Pêche du Québec, Service de l’aménagement de la faune. Rapport technique.
Wachelka, H. (2008a). Muskies Canada, the first 10 Years. Muskies Canada Release Journal, mai/juin, p. 11.
Wachelka, H. (2008b). Muskies Canada, the Middle Years. Muskies Canada Release Journal, juillet/août, p. 11.
Wachelka, H. (2008c). Muskies Canada, 1999 to Present. Muskies Canada Release Journal, septembre/octobre, p. 8-10.
Originally published in the Fall 2018 edition of the Release Journal.
Lac-Frontière is a small municipality of 175 inhabitants located in the Appalachians on the border of Quebec and the state of Maine, just south of Montmagny. The municipality is of course located on the shores of the lake that has the same name. Between 1842 and 1849 the place was known as the English Lake due to the presence of Americans and British who were staying there during the surveying of the Canada-US border. It is in 1919 that the municipality is officially founded; this means that next year will be Lac-Frontière 100th birthday. Back in the days, the BC Howard company erected up to 4 sawmills around the lake. The railroad was used to supply the mills, the population of this small village will reach up to 3000 inhabitants at its highest point. Today there is not much left of this prosperous period except the remains of the railway bridge and many 100-year-old timber logs that lay on the bottom of the lake.
An error in fisheries management
The lake itself is small. Its area is 1.1 km2, but the Great North West Black River which feeds it winds from Talon Lake for more than 20 kilometers. Unlike most water bodies in Quebec, Lake Frontière is not included in the St. Lawrence River watershed but rather in the Saint John River watershed. This geographical feature had important repercussions that had been underestimated by the authorities of the Ministry of Tourism, Recreation, Hunting and Fishing in the 1970s when they determined that Lake Frontière would be one of the sites of their muskellunge stocking program.
Between 1970 and 1979, the Quebec Ministry of Tourism, Recreation, Hunting and Fishing stocked a total of 6250 muskellunge from 7 to 20 cm in the lake. The goal was to offer a species for sport fishing to the population and to reduce the presence of white sucker. They believed that the muskellunge would remain confined to the lake and the river, but after a few years they learned that the muskellunge was way more adventurous.
Today, Lake Frontière muskellunge is found everywhere in the Saint John River watershed. Muskies stocked in Lake Frontière has colonized the waters of the Saint John River in New Brunswick, and because of that we have the Muskies Canada St. John River chapter today. Muskellunge is now caught in East Lake near La Pocatière and Beau Lake in Témiscouata, Qc.
Each year a Muskie Fishing tournament is held in Fort Kent, Maine with awards totaling $ 35,000 USD. Although Muskies are considered by the state of Maine to be an invasive species (no size limit or number of capture) and to record a catch at the Fort Kent tournament Muskies has to be killed, the tournament organizers request recommend that muskies under 38″ should be released. In New Brunswick, the Muskies are still considered has an invasive species, but in recent years some progress has been made thanks to the involvement of our members in St. John River.
We know today and probably at that time too that the arrival of a non-native species in an environment can have serious consequences. But after 40 years, we must face the fact that it will be impossible to go back and that we should rather embrace the benefits of this past error.
The lake itself is very shallow. In the middle of the lake there is only 9 feet of water. There are many weed beds all around the lake. At the northeast end of the lake there is a large marshy and very shallow area that is full of wildlife. On a canoe trip in the small pond you can see ducks, herons, bitterns, beavers, muskrats, frogs, and of course furrows in the water of muskies fleeing in front of the boat. On the other hand, some pool in the river are more than 20 feet deep.
I spent the summers of my youth on the shore of Lake Frontière. My parents built a cottage there in 1981. At the time, there were very few cottages around the lake and it was not uncommon to see moose come to cool down in the marshes in the summer. The state of Maine has a phenomenal moose population and the border is less than one kilometer from the lake, so moose often cross it. By the way, every October during moose hunting season, the border becomes like Vimy Ridge in 1917 with watchtowers and hunters on the lookout every 300 meters. Today there are many more cottages around the lake which represents an environmental challenge to avoid the increase of eutrophication of the lake.
Muskies in the lake are well established, but we can say that the better days are behind us. In the 1980s Lake Frontière delivered its largest muskies. It was the growth peak of the stocked muskie, they had abundant food and relatively low fishing pressure. In the 1980s, my father captured two specimens over 40 inches (41″ and 42″).
Catches of 44″ and 47″ have also been reported. At that time, you could fish for perch from the shore and catch an impressive number of yellow perch in good sizes. This is not scientific, but it seems that the quantity and size of yellow perch has greatly decreased since then as has the size of the muskellunge too. Today a big Muskie of Lake Frontière is 35-37 inches. Average catches are between 26 and 30 inches.
Release and regulation
The daily catch limit and possession limit of muskellunge on Lake Frontière is 2 per person. There is no size limit.
At the beginning of my engagement with Muskies Canada, I thought that if the fishermen on Lake Frontière were all practicing catch and release, the quality of the fishery would only improve in the next few years. But since then I’ve learned more about it and I understand that the lake’s muskies population is healthy but has likely reached a ceiling in the balance between the amount of food available and the number of predators competing for this food. If a size limit required anglers to release all catches greater than 32 inches and take a good amount of smaller muskellunge (say, larger than 26 “), perhaps after some years we could hope to capture specimens over 40 ” again. But know that I have no degree in biology and my knowledge of fisheries management are very limited so what I think is worth what it is worth.
However, the Quebec Ministry of Forests, Wildlife and Parks will do nothing to regulate the muskie fishery on Lake Frontière because it would go against the muskellunge management done by the Department of Inland Fisheries. and Wildlife of Maine – Division of Fisheries and Hatcherie. As explained above, since the Lake Frontière watershed is not completely contained in Quebec, they can not control what is happening in Maine or New Brunswick. Quebec neighbours would not take well a regulation that will go against their own regulations.
Fishing the muskellunge on this lake on a good day can be a lot of fun. It is not uncommon to take several muskellunge in one day. This small lake in southeastern Quebec is still being talked about today as the source of the muskie invasion of the Saint John River, but it is also the source of my passion for muskie fishing. It’s my lake. I know all the bays, the depth of each meander of the river and I go back there every summer.
Muskies Canada Sport Fish and Research came into being to introduce conservation measures into the sport of Muskie fishing. For over 40 years there now 700 members from the 13 different Canadian chapters have been supplying the Ministry of Natural Resources with catch-and-release logs to aid in Muskie research. This year the organization has funded three different research projects, including one on Lake St Clair in partnership with Shimano Canada.
I have been invited to write a regular column on conservation issues related to Muskies and their Habitat.So my territory overlaps well with the range of Muskies in Canada.
A bit about me first, I work for Ducks Unlimited Canada as the Director of Regional Operations for Eastern Canada.This means I oversee DUC’s conservation work east of Manitoba. So my territory overlaps well with the range of Muskies in Canada.I have been a member of Muskies Canada for three years and am yet to catch my first Muskie.I hope the 2018 is my year.
I worked with Peter Levick, then president of Muskies Canada to develop a Memorandum of Understanding between Muskies and DUC in 2015.In this MOU we committed to ongoing collaboration to expand mutual habitat conservation projects that benefit Muskellunge and Waterfowl in eastern Canada.Given our shared focus on habitat this was the quickest MOU that I have ever developed.You will have seen in Chris Nielson’s Presidents message, that we are seeing good examples of working together.
Implications of proposed amendments to the Fisheries Act
One of the powerful tools supporting habitat conservation at scale is Federal or Provincial legislation or policy.These government directions can have significant impacts on habitat and uses of habitat.The federal fisheries act is a critical act that regulates activities related to fisheries and fish habitat.As such, it is an important tool in conservation of habitat.
The fisheries act underwent significant modernization and change in 2012.Some of these changes reduced the extent of fish habitats protected across Canada.The Federal government has introduced new amendments to the act (Bill C-68) that will have a significant impact on fish and fish habitat.Some highlights include:
Before Proposed Amendments
After Proposed Amendments
Not all fish and fish habitat protected; only those related to a commercial, recreational or Aboriginal fishery protected
Protection of all fish and fish habitat
Uncertainty as to when authorizations are required for development projects
Clarity on which types of projects require authorizations through permitting and codes of practice
Lack of transparency regarding authorization decisions for projects; no requirement to publicly release information on these decisions
Requirement to publicly release information on project decisions through an online registry
No provisions to restore degraded habitat as part of development project reviews
Provisions to consider restoration priorities as part of development project reviews
No tools to quickly implement in-season fisheries restrictions to address unforeseen conservation and management issues
Ability to put in place targeted short-term measures to quickly and effectively respond to unforeseen threats to the management of fisheries and to the conservation of fish
These proposed amendments are important to Muskies Canada for several reasons.First, the changes strengthen the protection of habitat for muskellunge throughout their lives.In addition, the proposed amendments will make is easier to know and understand if future development projects are going to impact muskellunge habitat and how developer will compensate for these impacts.The amendments are more explicit on compensation for destruction of fish habitat.Muskies Canada has the opportunity to guide compensation for loss of muskellunge habitat.
The act is currently moving thru the parliamentary process and the government is considering the proposed amendments.MP and Federal Ministers respond to comments from members of grass roots organizations like Muskies Canada.
So it is time to Take Action.
You can have a positive influence on getting Bill C-68 adopted by sending a letter, email or talking to your MP and/or Dominic LeBlanc the Federal Minister of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard.The message is simple you support the positive changes to increase the protection of fish habitat being proposed in Bill C-68.
The ability of future generations to enjoy species of fish like the muskellunge is based in part, on catch and release fishing today. The quality of the fishery depends on how carefully anglers release their fish. Over the years, a series of generally accepted handling procedures and suggestions have been developed by the catch and release community.
Match the Tackle to the Fish You’re After
Heavy Duty Rods, Reels, Line and Leaders
Why? – minimize fight time and ensure a good release.
7 ‘to 9’(+) rods
Mostly bait caster style reels
Wire or flourocarbon leaders – 100 lb and up
8’ (+) rods
Line Counter reels
100 lb (+) braid
Flourocarbon leaders – minimum 100 lb
Good quality large coated net (Big Kahuna) , Knipex bolt cutters (to cut hooks), long needle nose pliers, Hook out tool, jaw spreaders, gloves, measuring pole, bump board or seamstress measuring tape for getting length and girth measurements, towel
Other tools, split ring pliers, channel lock pliers, vice grips, scissors, hook file
You can tie some type of a lanyard around tools in order not to loose them
Preparing for the Catch
Communicate with your “net man” i.e., I will bring fish to you, net head first, hold the mesh
Have your net, release tools ready i.e., long nose pliers, hook cutters, gloves
Discuss lifting and holding techniques , practice proper release and resuscitation techniques
Keep your landing area ready. Keep the floor of your boat clear of clutter and keep loose hooks and lures in a tackle box, not on the floor or seat. This will help to avoid many potential accidents as well as give you plenty of room to land that trophy fish!
Net the muskie head first into a large coated net
Keep the muskie in the net until you get the hooks removed
Cut hooks if required and remove cut portions from muskie
If you’re taking a picture, get yourself and the boat organized to minimize the time the fish is out of the water.
Never lift a muskie vertically by its jaw. This has the potential of causing severe injury to the fish especially if it’s a big one.
When lifting a muskie for a photo or any other reason, always do so horizontally using your other hand to support it under its belly. Also, never ever hold any fish by its eye sockets. This definitely causes damage to the fish.
Our partner Ducks Unlimited Canada just released a great new resource for learning about invasive species that threaten many of our favourite musky waters. to learn more, make sure to check out the link!
Invasive species are changing the land and water we love. They overwhelm habitat, choking out natural wildlife and vegetation. They spread aggressively and hold their ground stubbornly. Winning the fight against an invasive species takes science, engineering and people committed to on-the-ground hard work.